Yes! You may have noticed the small arrow shape next to the column title in a list. In the example below, you'll see a down arrow shape, called a "carat," next to the title "Name." Clicking on the carat will change the order of a column. For example, the column is currently sorted in alphabetical order. Clicking on the arrow next to name will sort the column in reverse alphabetical order.
You can click on any column to resort the objects in the list. For example clicking on the "Last Modified" column will sort the column by the last modified date, rather than alphabetical order.
You can also rename your items using a numerical system that will force the order you want. For example, add a "01, 02, 03..." in front of your Folder name to order with numbers instead of the title of the Folder.
If you want to include the document date in the naming convention, you can enter the dates in numerical order and then sort by number as shown below: